HISTORY OF THE GERM THEORY
the germ theory of disease
the importance of sterility
in medical operations
Black 6th: p 8-21
||Man first thought disease to be punishment from God, then brought on by foul vapors (miasma) (malaria for instance)|
|Aesclepius||classic Greek cult of healing Drink the water and dream your cure. Theater in Aesclepion.|
|Plato taught Aristotle||Socrates taught Plato, and here
Plato teaches Aristotle.
|Aristotle||350 BC, Father of biology, taught Alexander the Great the Macedonian warrior, to boil drinking water & bury feces to prevent disease.|
|Girolamo Fracastorius|| (1483–1553)1546 Theory
of contagion: disease
can be caused by minute bodies capable of self-replication, transmitted
from infector to infected. Said to have named syphilis. Treat by expelling
"seeds" of malady rather than altering humoral balance.
1670s improved microscope (See previous page on History of Microbiology)
|Agostino Bassi||1834 First to show that a microorganism could cause disease in case of a fungal disease of silkworms (muscardine): contagious and could be transmitted naturally by direct contact or infected food, or experimentally by means of a pin previously sterilized in a flame. Recommended use of disinfectants; separating the rows of feeding caterpillars; isolating and destroying infected caterpillars; and keeping the farms clean|
|Oliver Wendle Holmes||1843 Noted
that it was safer to give birth at home than in hospital, postulated
present in hospital is causing disease (nosocomial disease).
|M.J. Berkeley||1845 Showed Irish potato blight (view of plant) caused by a fungus|
|Ignaz Semmelweis||1848 (P 14) In charge of lying-in hospital in Vienna. Childbirth death rate: Ward II midwives = 3%, Ward I, medical faculty: ~10%. Phys. friend died of autopsy wound, S&S same as puerperal fever. Proposed etiology: "cadaveric particles." Smell not removed by hand washing, but calcium hypochlorite: Ca(OCl)2 did. Chloride of lime washing reduced puerperal fever death rate 12.4% to 1.27%.Iatrogenic disease.|
|John Snow||1854 deduced contaminated Broad Street Pump (neighborhood) caused cholera epidemic in London. Removed handle.|
|Joseph Lister||1860s (p 14) Introduced use of antiseptic during surgery: phenol in surgical dressings and sprayed into the air. Wound infections dropped dramatically, thus due to bacteria.|
|Louis Pasteur||1865 (P 12) Demonstrated that spoilage of wine was due to abnormal microorganisms. Then asked by French gov to study PEBRINE: (pa-breen) another disease of silkworms, caused by a protozoan. Could be halted by identifying diseased worms, removing and destroying.|
|Davaine||1850 observed little thread-like bodies in blood of anthrax-killed animals|
|Henle||proposed that diseases might be directly caused by microorganisms. His student, Koch:|
|Robert Koch||1876 (P 13) rival of
raced to find the cause of anthrax
(coal, burning coal, from pustules & carbuncles in affected animals)disease
of sheep and cattle. His
lab. First to demonstrate bacillary agent to be pathogen.
Used criteria by which a bacterium may be said to cause a disease suggested by his teacher, Henle. Now called:
POSTULATES (p 13)
2. single colony-isolate bacillus on solid media. (Developed the technique after observing colonies on a spoiled potato.)
3 injecte pure culture into healthy animals, they get anthrax.
4. isolate same organism from animals experimentally given anthrax..
|Chamberland||1884 Invented a porcelain filter. filtering assembly.|
|Martinus Beijerinck||showed that tobacco mosaic disease was caused by "filterable' agent (i.e., not bacteria) therefore. called virus.|
PREVENTION, CURE OF DISEASE: vaccination, therapeutic agents:
||1798 Saw peasants do this
susceptible person with pus from cowpox lesion, conferred
to Small Pox. Vaccination comes from vache, cow in
lesion. Famous painting
of an inoculation.
|Louis Pasteur||1880 Cultured chicken cholera repeatedly, it lost its virulence but could still confer immunity when injected. Attenuated [towards thinness] strain = vaccine|
1910 Searched for "magic bullet" would poison pathogen but not patient. Developed salvarsan, an arsenic compound against syphilis.
||1928 (P 18) Funky Lab. Another picture: young Fleming in Lab. Noted inhibition of Staphylococcus growth on plate contaminated with Penicillium notatum. Discovered penicillin.|