Characteristics of Chordates:
All chordates have a number of structures in common:
Taxonomy of Chordates:
The main taxa within Phylum Chordata include:
Labeled Microscopic View of Amphioxus
Note that humans (Class Mammalia) are to reptiles (Class Reptilia) as insects (Class Insecta) are to centipedes (Class Chilopoda), and humans (Subphylum Vertebrata) are to Amphioxus (Subphylum Cephalochordata) as insects (Subphylum Atelocerata) are to spiders (Subphylum Chelicerata), or the other way around, insects and spiders are no more closely related to each other than humans and lancelets.
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Campbell, Neil A., Lawrence G. Mitchell, Jane B. Reece. 1999. Biology, 5th Ed. Benjamin/Cummings Publ. Co., Inc. Menlo Park, CA. (plus earlier editions)
Campbell, Neil A., Lawrence G. Mitchell, Jane B. Reece. 1999. Biology: Concepts and Connections, 3rd Ed. Benjamin/Cummings Publ. Co., Inc. Menlo Park, CA. (plus earlier editions)
Marchuk, William N. 1992. A Life Science Lexicon. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA.
Zimmer, Carl. 2011. The long curious extravagant evolution of feathers. Natl. Geog. 219(2):32-57.Copyright © 1997 by J. Stein Carter. All rights reserved.