Primitive Plants: Mosses, Ferns, and Allies

Plants and Alternation of Generations:

Plants are multicellular eukaryotes. Nearly all are photosynthetic, and most are terrestrial (some are secondarily aquatic). Plants contain a variety of cell types that are specialized to perform different functions: the aerial parts generally have a waxy cuticle to prevent water loss, but the roots don’t so they can absorb water. The photosynthetic pigments include chlorophylls A and B plus various carotenoids. Plant cells have cell walls which are made of cellulose. Plants grow by mitosis, and reproduce by meiosis (which produces spores) and alternation of generations with special adaptations of the gametes and embryos to survive in a non-aquatic environment. The gametes are produced in gametangia. The male gametangium is called an antheridium (anthe = flower), while the female gametangium is an archegonium (arche = first, beginning; goni = seed). The eggs are fertilized within the female archegonium to reduce desiccation, and often stay within the archegonium to continue their development. In all plant groups except Division Bryophyta, the 2n sporophyte is the dominant generation.

The mosses, ferns and their allies are among the most primitive of plants, having relatives from the coal age. Like other plants, they are adapted to an environment where they are not totally surrounded by water, but most must live in very humid environments which are especially necessary for transfer of sperm in these groups. The sex organs of these plants are multicellular. The zygote (2n generation) is retained within the female sex organ of many of the mosses but is free-living in the ferns and their allies. The dominant generation in the mosses is usually the gametophyte, and in the ferns is the sporophyte. Alternation of generations in these groups is often quite complex.

Plant Classification The various Divisions (remember botanists use Division = Phylum) of plants are classified based on presence/absence of a vascular system and/or seeds. If seeds are present, the location of the seeds (whether on the surface of a reproductive structure or within some type of ovary) becomes significant.

The mosses and their allies lack true roots, stems, and leaves as such because they do not contain vascular bundles (veins). Many of them, however, do have rhizoids (rhizo = root; -oid = like, form) — root-like non-roots, as well as stemlike and leaflike structures. The ferns, like other more familiar plants, have true vascular bundles of xylem (xylo = wood; phloeo = the bark of a tree) and phloem for transport of water and nutrients. The fern allies have stems, but rootlike and leaflike structures vary with the group.

In the vascular plants, soil minerals and water are absorbed by the roots (which also anchor the plant and have no cuticle so water can be absorbed). Air, light, and CO2 are absorbed by the leaves, while the O2 “waste” from photosynthesis is released from the leaves. The stem functions in the support of the plant, and its vascular system transports water and nutrients. The diploid sporophyte is the dominant generation. Some gametophytes are monoecious and some are dioecious. “Monoecious” means that the male and female reproductive organs are in/on the same individual plant, while “dioecious” refers to having separate male and female plants. The vascular system (transportation system) is composed of xylem (xylo = wood) which transports water and nutrients up from the roots and must be dead to function (this consists of hollow tubes where cells have died) and phloem (phloeo = the bark of a tree), which distribute sugars around the plant and consists of live cells. In general, in the vascular bundles in the stems, xylem is found “inside” the bundle, surrounded by phloem, and in leaves, xylem is found on “top” of the bundles with phloem underneath.

In the Middle Ages times in Europe, the herbalists treated various diseases and disorders with herbs. One idea that was used in deciding which herb served what purpose was the Doctrine of Signatures. Medieval herbalists believed that God purposely made certain plants look like certain body organs (at least in the eyes of the Medieval herbalists) as a sign that those plants were meant for treating those organs. Hence, we have plants with names like liverwort, spleenwort, etc. (wort is an Anglo-Saxon or Celtic word which means plant, root, or herb). We now know that most of these plants don’t appear to help the organs after which they’re named, and some are even too toxic to safely consume. “Wort” was also used in other plant names. For example, St. Johnswort blooms (at least in Europe) around 24 June, when the Catholics celebrate the festival of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, Pewterwort is another name for Scouring Rush because of its use in cleaning pewter, and a sudsing juice can be extracted from Soapwort.

Examine, take notes on, and/or draw the various material indicated below as available and as time allows.

Division Bryophyta, the Mosses and Liverworts:

(bryo = moss; phyto = plant) These are terrestrial, but live in very damp, shady places. They have no vascular system so must directly absorb water from the soil.

Class Hepatica (Liverworts):

Live Marchantia Thallus
(hepat = liver; wort = herb, plant)
While closely related to the mosses, liverworts look quite different. Like mosses, the dominant generation is the haploid (1n) gametophyte generation. The body (thallusthall = twig, young shoot) of a liverwort is flat and ribbon-like (approximately 1 cm wide) with a “midrib”. Because they also have no vascular system to distribute water, they must remain small and be in almost direct contact with moist soil. One commonly-occurring genus of liverwort is Marchantia.

Marchantia thallus
Microscopic View of Marchantia Thallus
The liverworts have a ribbon-like body (thallus - thall = twig, young shoot) with a midrib.

Examine (and draw and label) live Marchantia. Look for gemmae cups, male antheridial heads, and female archegonial heads (all described below).

Male and Female
Male and Female Reproductive Structures
Male and Female
Male and Female Reproductive Structures
The male gametophytes produce antheridial heads that look sort-of like umbrellas. Each antheridial head contains several antheridia full of sperm. The female gametophytes produce archegonial heads that look like clusters of “fingers.” Several archegonia, each containing one egg, are located on the underside of each finger. When it rains, the antheridia release sperm. Raindrops then splash the sperm onto the archegonial head, where they swim to and into an archegonium, then fertilize that egg. Again, the zygote remains within the archegonium, and grows into an inconspicuous, small, round, 2n sporophyte. Meiosis occurs within the sporophyte, resulting in 1n spores which are then released and grow into the next gametophyte generation. This photo shows several male and female reproductive structures. Note that one version is labeled so you know which is which, and the other version is “plain” so you can see those structures more easily.

Marchantia anteridial head
Marchantia Antheridial Head
Marchantia antheridia with sperm
Marchantia Antheridia with Sperm
Sperm are produced within antheridia on the male gametophyte’s antheridial head.

Examine (and draw and label) a prepared slide of the male antheridial head (Carolina #B323b).

Marchantia archegonial head
Marchantia Archegonial Head
Marchantia archegonia with eggs
Marchantia Archegonia with Eggs
Eggs are produced within archegonia on the female gametophyte’s archegonial head.

Examine (and draw and label) a prepared slide of the female archegonial head (Carolina #B325).

When the sperm fertilizes the egg, the result is a zygote (zygo = yoke). After growing into a multicellular sporophyte within the female plant, many of these cells undergo meiosis to form haploid (haplo = half) spores, the start of a new generation of gametophytes.

Examine the plastic mount containing male and female gametophytes and a female gametophyte that contains 2n sporophytes.

Gemma Cups
Marchantia with Gemmae Cups
In addition to the “usual” sexual reproduction, liverworts also reproduce asexually by means of small, cup-like structures called gemma cups (gemma = a bud) which occur periodically on the thallus and contain small pieces of liverwort called gemmae (sing. = gemma). When it rains, the gemmae are splashed out and can grow into new liverworts.

Marchantia gemmae
Microscopic View of Gemmae
Examine (and draw) the prepared slide of Marchantia gemmae.

Class Musci (Mosses):

Moss Life Cycle
Moss Life Cycle
(musc = moss)
These are terrestrial plants, but must live in very damp, shady places. They have no vascular system so must directly absorb water from the soil. Mosses have root-like rhizoids (rhizo = root; -oid = like, form) and leaf-like structures, but these are not true roots/leaves because they have no vascular system. The dominant generation in the life cycle is the 1n gametophyte.

moss young leafy shoot
Moss Young “Leafy” Shoot
A germinating moss spore gives rise to an algalike protonema (proto = first, original; nema = a thread) which later develops rhizoids and “leafy” shoots. These moss gametophytes produce antheridia (male sex organs — anthe = flower; -idium = small) or archegonia (female sex organs — arche/archeg = ancient, first, beginning; goni = seed) on the tips of the “stems.”

moss anteridial head
Moss Antheridial Head
moss antheridia with sperm
Moss Antheridia with Sperm

moss archegonial head
Moss Archegonial Head
moss archegonia with eggs
Moss Archegonia with Eggs

Examine (and draw and label) prepared slides of moss male antheridial heads and female archegonial heads.

Moss Plants
Labeled Moss with Sporophytes
In wet weather, sperm are released from their antheridium, swim to an archegonium, swim down the opening in the archegonium, and fertilize the egg. The resulting 2n zygote remains within the archegonium for protection from dessication, and grows by mitosis to form the new, 2n sporophyte generation. The sporophyte never leaves the archegonium, but grows upward from there, forming a stalk and capsule on top of the “stem” of the gametophyte. Within the capsule, certain cells undergo meiosis to form spores, the start of the new gametophyte generation, and when the spores are mature and the weather is right, the calyptra (the lid — calypt = covered, a cover) opens and the spores are released. These spores grow via mitosis to turn into the new, 1n gametophyte generation. In this photo, there are two 1n female moss gametophytes, each with a 2n sporophyte growing out of the top of it.

Moss with Sporophytes
Moss with Sporophytes

In this photograph of clusters of moss plants, the low, “fuzzy” growth is all the 1n gametophyte moss plants. The stalks sticking up with capsules on top are all there is of the 2n sporophyte generation.

Examine any plastic mounts that are available. If available, examine live moss to try to locate these structures.


(tracheo = the windpipe)
These plants all have a vascular system, comprised of xylem and phloem, to transport water and nutrients.

Division Lycophyta, the Clubmosses:

Unlike what the Division common name might suggest, these are not mosses. This Division contains two main modern genera: Lycopodium (lyco = wolf, poda = foot) also known as ground pine or wolf’s claw (hence the genus name), which is the larger of the two, and Selaginella, which is smaller in size. Many tropical species in this Division are epiphytes (epi = upon, over), plants that use another plant as a substrate upon which to live but are not parasitic. Most of our local species have a rhizome, an underground, horizontal STEM from which the roots and branches arise. Their leaves, while tiny, are true leaves with a vascular system.

The Lycophyta bear single sporangia (sporo = seed; angio = vessel, box, case) in the axils (axil = armpit) of special leaves called sporophylls, usually near the tips of the branches. The sporophyte generation has a horizontal rhizome, branching aerial stem, and numerous small leaves. These leaves do have a vein in the center. In each sporangium, special cells undergo meiosis to form spores. These spores produce underground tuberous gametophytes, some of which are dependent on a certain fungus for their nutrition. For Lycopodium, Eastern Redcedar growing nearby also appears to be important to survival. Gametophytes produce eggs and sperm which unite to form the new sporophyte.

Wolf’s Claw:

Running Ground Pine
Running Ground Pine
Here is a photo of Running Ground Pine, Lycopodium flabelliforme. This used to be quite common in certain areas on the Clermont campus, but within recent years, has totally disappeared from all those locations.

This group is mentioned just because it fits in, here, but we will not be examining them.

Division Sphenophyta, the Horsetails:

(spheno = a wedge)
The main genus in this Division is Equisetum (equis = horse; setum = bristle). The sporophyte consists of an underground rhizome from which roots and aerial branches arise. Fertile “stems” do not branch but bear a cone at their tips and a whorl of scalelike leaves at each joint on the stem. The non-fertile “stems” of many species of horsetail have smaller branches at the joints, resembling a horse’s tail while those of Scouring Rush resemble the fertile branches. This is the sporophyte generation (which is dominant) whose spores form in the cone. When these spores germinate, they form small gametophytes (similar to those of the clubmosses) which eventually bear antheridia and archegonia. When the sperm fertilizes the egg, the zygote develops into a sporophyte again.

Field Horsetail:

Field Horsetail
Field Horsetail
Field Horsetail
Field Horsetail
A local species called Field Horsetail (Equisetum arvensearvens = a field) shows the branching pattern from which the genus gets its name.

Scouring Rush:

Scouring Rush
Scouring Rush
Scouring Rush
Scouring Rush
Another local species called Scouring Rush (Equisetum hyemalehyemal = winter) has whorls of small, brownish or grayish (dead) leaves at the joints instead of branches, thus sort-of resembling rushes or bamboo. Scouring Rush gets its species name (hyemale) because it is evergreen, while Field Horsetail dies back to the ground in winter. The epidermal cells of this (and many other) species of Equisetum contain silica, thus these plants have been crumpled up and used as potscrubbers, earning the plant its common name of “scouring rush.” Its strength is due to the presence of significant amounts of silica in its stems. If the top of the main stalk is damaged, Scouring Rush may send out side branches similar to those normally produced by Field Horsetail. Scouring Rush may occur in large stands in moist areas such as along stream banks.

Scouring Rush
Scouring Rush

This group is mentioned just because it fits in, here, but we will not be examining them. Hopefully, we will be able to view them during a subsequent field hike.

Division Pterophyta, the Ferns:

(ptera, ptero = wing, feather; phyto = plant)

Class Filicineae (Ferns)

Fern Life Cycle
Fern Life Cycle
filic = a fern)
Ferns also exhibit alternation of generations, but for them, the 2n sporophyte generation is the dominant generation, and the 1n gametophytes are inconspicuous. The sporophyte plant consists of an underground, horizontal rhizome from which arise the roots and leaves.

A frond is a mature fern leaf, and these are often compound (divided into leaflets). A fiddlehead or crozier is a tightly-coiled, developing “baby” fern leaf. Fern leaves uncoil as they grow, thus initially resemble the top of a violin above the pegs (fiddlehead) or a shepherd’s or bishop’s staff (crozier). Most ferns have horizontal stems or rhizomes. Some ferns having vertical stems are called tree ferns. Examples of some types of ferns follow.

Christmas Fern frond
Mature Christmas Fern Frond

Christmas Fern fiddleheads
Young Christmas Fern Fiddleheads

Another Fiddlehead
Fragile Fern with Fiddleheads

Tree Fern
A Tree Fern from California

Christmas Fern
Christmas Fern Sterile and Fertile Leaves
Fern sporophytes have two kinds of leaves: sterile and fertile. The sterile leaves are “regular” leaves, primarily for photosynthesis. The fertile leaves bear the spore-producing areas. In some types of ferns, the sterile and fertile leaves look almost alike, except for the presence/absence of the spore-producing areas, while in other types of ferns, the sterile and fertile leaves look very different from each other.

Rattlesnake Fern
Rattlesnake Fern Sterile and Fertile Leaves

Ebony Spleenwort Leaf
Ebony Spleenwort Leaf
On the underside of the fertile leaves are numerous brown spots called sori (singular = sorus — sorus = a heap). Alternatively, in the Rattlesnake fern, shown above, the sori are the small, yellow balls on the fertile leaf.

Examine (and draw and label) any live ferns (Pteris, Pteridium, or other ferns) that are available. Examine any plastic mounts that are available. Alternately, live ferns may be examined in a subsequent field hike.

Ebony Spleenwort Sori
Ebony Spleenwort Sori
Each sorus contains numerous sporangia in which the spores are produced via meiosis.

fern sori containing sporangia
Cross-Section of Fern Sori with Sporangia
A single sporangium consists of a stalk made of several elongated cells, and a capsule. The “backbone” of the capsule is a ring of cells called an annulus (annul = a ring), while the capsule itself is made of thin-walled cells. Note that each of the cells in the annulus has a thin outer wall and thick inner walls. In drier weather, evaporation of water from the cells of the annulus causes them to dehydrate somewhat. Thus, the annulus becomes straighter, causing the sides of the capsule to tear open and spores to be released.

fern sporangia
Fern Sporangia
fern sporangiaa
Fern Sporangia with Spores Inside

Examine (and draw and label) the prepared slide of fern sporangia (Carolina #B431), or if live ferns with sori/sporangia are available, scrape some material from a sorus onto a microscope slide and add a drop of glycerol (rather than water) to make a wet mount. (Because glycerol also will pull water out of cells, it can serve to dehydrate them, thus causing the capsule to tear and spores to be released for examination.) Focus on and observe a single sporangium, noticing the stalk, capsule, spores, and annulus.

fern female gametophyte
Fern Female Gametophyte
fern archegonia with eggs
Fern Archegonia with Eggs

fern male gametophyte
Fern Male Gametophyte
fern antheridia with sperm
Fern Antheridia with Sperm

Each spore produced in the sporangium by meiosis is released and grows into a small, heart-shaped gametophyte called a prothallium (pro = before, in front of; thall = a young shoot, twig) which produces either antheridia and sperm or archegonia and eggs.

Examine the prepared slide with male and female prothallia on it (Carolina #B410). The male is on the left — note the antheridia full of sperm. The female is on the right — notice the archegonia, each of which contains one egg.

fern antheridia releasing sperm
Fern Antheridia Releasing Sperm
fern sperm around archegonia
Fern Sperm around Archegonia

The eggs produce a chemical to attract the sperm. Sperm swim to and fertilize the eggs.

Examine the prepared slide of fern fertilization (Carolina #B411). Notice the sperm being released from the antheridia, and notice the groups of sperm clustered around the archegonia/eggs.

Typically one 2n zygote per female gametophyte will develop into a new sporophyte fern. The zygote remains within the archegonium, and the new sporophyte forms within the archegonium until it sends up its first leaf and roots. Once the sporophyte is established, the gametophyte dies and decays.

fern antheridia releasing sperm
Fern Sporophyte Growing from Gametophyte
(Photo of Slide)
fern sperm around archegonia
Fern Sporophyte Growing from Gametophyte
(Microscopic View)

Examine the prepared slide of a prothallium with a young sporophyte growing out of it (Carolina #B415). Notice the small, heart-shaped, 1n prothallium and the larger, new, 2n fern growing out of it.

Note that the ancestors of these primitive plants were present back in “dinosaur times,” and the structures of the modern plants have changed little since then.

Other Things to Include in Your Notebook

Make sure you have all of the following in your lab notebook:

Copyright © 2010 by J. Stein Carter. All rights reserved.
Based on printed protocol Copyright © 1989 J. L. Stein Carter.
Chickadee photograph Copyright © by David B. Fankhauser
This page has been accessed Counter times since 18 Dec 2010.