CAT MUSCLES OF 

THE LOWER APPENDAGES

©David B. Fankhauser, Ph.D.
Professor of Biology and Chemistry
University of Cincinnati Clermont College,
Batavia OH 45103
 semitendinosus

This page has been accessed Counter times since 3 December 2001. 
3 Dec 1991, rvsd 20Sept94, 30Nov95, 23Sept96, 5Dec96, 4Dec97, 19Sept99, 19Sept00, 30Nov00, 29Nov01
rectus femoris

See also Martini's Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 5th, pp 246-355.

B e sure to remove all fascia from surface of muscles to see the muscle edges clearly. Page numbers refer to the page number of appropriate illustrations in Gilbert's Pictorial Anatomy of the Cat. See previous handouts for techniques and preparation of the cat to this point.

Here is a directory of pictures of a model of muscles of the thigh, leg and foot
Some are labeled: anterior thigh , anterior thigh deep, medial thigh, posterior thigh, posterior thigh deep
                           anterior leg, lateral posterior leg, (more to come)

This dissection is divided into muscles of the   
MEDIAL THIGH Here is a labeled view of the muscles of the medial thigh.
LATERAL THIGH Here is a labeled view of the muscles of the lateral thigh.
LATERAL LEG Here is a labeled view of the anterior muscles of the leg and foot
MEDIAL LEG
Here is a directory of images taken 2009.  Here are a selection which have been labeled:
gracilis and sartorious
tensor fascia lata
medial leg, deep
biceps femoris, cutting and reflecting
gluteal muscles

 
MEDIAL THIGH:
Gilbert, pages 32, 34 and 35
sartorius origin:  anterior superior iliac spine
insertion: tibial medial epicondyle 

cut and reflect

gracilis origin:  pubis
insertion:  medial surface of tibia (by an aponeurosis)

It is wide and thin, runsdown inside of thigh.

Cut and reflect

tensor fascia lata

fascia lata
(iliotibial tract)

origin:  iliac crest
insertion:  into the fascia lata

Locate where thigh joins abdomen, follow to connective tissue band: fascia lata (an aponeurosis on lateral side of thigh)

 cut and reflect

semitendinosus origin: ischial tuberosity
insertion: medial side of the tibia, below the epicondyle

It is a round, thin muscle whose tendon inserts in medial side of tibia below the semimembranosus.

semimembranosus origin:  ischium
insertion: medial epicondyle of tibia

It is a thick muscle, much larger and more anterior than the semitendinosus in the cat. 

adductors adductor femoris
(adductor magnus)

adductor longus

both adductor femoris and adductor longus:
origin:  pubis
insertions: medial femur

Adductor femoris is large, adjacent to semimembranosus (called adductor magnus in humans)
Adductor longus is small, adjacent to and above adductor femoris
Here are the adductor muscles (etc) labeled.

iliopsoas origin:  lumbar vertebrae and medial ilium
insertion:  lesser trochanter.

It is superior and lateral to femoral vessels (which emerge thru the abdominal wall)  (Look in rear of abdomen of previously dissected cat for best view.)

Here is a labeled view of the muscles of the medial thigh.

LATERAL THIGH:
Gilbert, pages 31 and 33
biceps femoris 
(already cut and reflected)

sciatic nerve 
(white cord in picture)
 

origin:  ischial tuberosity
insertion:  lateral tibia (and patella and leg fascia)

It is the large lateral hamstring
cut and reflect (Don't cut sciatic nerve )

gluteus maximus origin:  transverse processes of sacral & caudal vertebrae
insertion:  greater trochanter 

small in cat, inserts into femur and fascia lata

Here are the muscles of the lateral thigh labeled.

gluteus medius origin:  ilium near the crest
insertion:  greater trochanter

larger than maximus in cat, superior to maximus

quadriceps femoris , including:
    vastus lateralis
    vastus medialis
    rectus femoris
    vastus intermedius

origin:  all originate on femur except rectus femoris
rectus femoris origin: ilium
rectus femoris is a  round, "hotdog in bun"  common insertion:  patella
palettal and ligament patella

patellar ligament
feel it by wiggling side to side directly over the knee below patella, connects to tibial tuberosity 

LATERAL LEG:
Gilbert, pages 31 and 33




gastrocnemius
soleus

Achilles tendon
 

origin:  lateral and medial heads of tibia
insertion:  calcaneous via the achilles tendon

calf muscle, superficial to next muscle
directly under the gastrocnemius

tendon of insertion for next two muscles into calcaneus

tibialis anterior origin:  proximal ends of tibia and fibula
insertion:  first metatarsal

anterior-most muscle of the lateral compartment, lies along tibia.  Its tendon of insertion passes in front of the tibia to the medial side of the foot.


extensor digitorum
extensor digitorum longus origin:  lateral epicondyle of tibia
insertion:  middle and distal phalanges 2-5 
 four-part insertions cross top of foot

extends four toes simultaneously
lies under the tibialis anterior next to the tibia.
tendon of insertion passes under the transverse ligament, splits into four parts.
 

(Do not confuse its tendon with that of tibialis anterior which angles downin the lower picture)

Here is a labeled view of the anterior muscles of the leg and foot

peroneus longus tendon origin:  proximal fibula
insertion:  bases of metatarsals

passes lateral to lateral malleolus, passes under foot to 1st metatrsl

transverse ligaments retinacula which hold down tendons of insertion

MEDIAL LEG:
Gilbert, pages 32, 34 and 35
tibialis anterior tendon origin:  proximal tibia and fibula
insertion:  first metatarsal

inserts medial side of first metatarsal (inverts foot)


flexor digitorum
flexor digitorum longus origin: behind tibia, below semitendinosus. 
insertion:  bases of terminal phalanges 2-5
Its tendon lies just behind the tibial malleolus (pull tendon, all toes flex)


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