ęDavid B. Fankhauser, Ph.D.,
Professor of Biology and Chemistry
University of Cincinnati Clermont College,
Batavia OH 45103
top view of atlas resting on axis 
(C1 on top of C2)
This page has been accessed Counter times since 9 November 2001. 
15 Sept 1993, rvsd 4 Nov 1994, 12 Sept 95, 23 Sept 96, 3 Dec 96, 4 Nov 99, 2 Nov 00, 1 Nov 01
posterior view of 
right scapula

Illustrate these disarticulated bones and include the listed features with labels (handle with care and respect please, they are real & fragile).
Enter in your book on pages in this order:
First set of pages:
Facing pages (illustrations 1 and 2):
1)  cervical and thoracic vertebra
2)  lumbar vertebra and articulated atlas and axis

3) sacrum
4) scapula

Second set of pages
Facing pages (illustrations 5 and 6):
5) humerus front and back
6) radius and ulna

7) hand and wrist
8) os coxa
9)  ankle and foot



d. Articulated C-1 and C-2 :labeled drawing of vertebra( top rear view of the articulated bones) (one picture)
atlas: no centrum, articular surface for odontoid process, no spinous process
axis: odontoid process (dens) (Martini's 5th: p 215)
Here is a labeled view of articulated C-1 and C-2.

Here is a labeled view of atlas and axis with spinous process at top.
cervical vertabra a: cervical : most delicate of the vertebrae (Martini's 5h: p 215-218)
Unique cervical features: transverse foramina, bifurcated spinous process
thoracic vertebra

thoracic vertebra, side view

b: thoracic : label features common to all vertebrae:
centrum, neural arch, vertebral foramen, pedicle, spinous process, lamina, superior articular processes, transverse process, Draw small side view of a thoracic vertebra showing the demifacets and the vertebral notches which form intervertebral foramina for spinal nerves.  Unique thoracic features:demifacets for articulation with rib head, seen from side (except for 11th and 12th.), articular facets on transverse processes (for rib tubercle) and long delicate spinous processes

Here is alabeled view of a thoracic vertebra.

Here is a labeled side view of articulated thoracic vertebrae .
Here is a labeled picture of the articulation of ribs with vetebra.

                  vertebra c: lumbar : heavy centra, broad heavy spinous process, transverse process lacks facets


                  right rear view  Sacrumlabeled drawing sacrum(posterior view): dorsal sacral foramina, superior articular facet, auricular surface (on sides, for os coxa), (ala), median sacral crest, sacral canal, sacral hiatus.

Here is a labeled view of the sacrum.

 Scapula : (posterior view): labeled drawing scapulaacromion process, coracoid process, spine of the scapula, supraspinous fossa, infraspinous fossa, glenoid fossa, vertebral border, axillary border
Here is a labeled image of the posterior scapula.
23.4. Bones of the arm: (two pages: two views of humerus on first,
ulna and radius on facing page)

a: humerus: (anterior and posterior views): head, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, intertubercular groove, deltoid tuberosity, lateral epicondyle, medial epicondyle, trochlea, coronoid fossa, capitulum, olecranon fossa

ulna and
proximal radius articulation    supine (top), prone (lower):
                  radius and ulnapronation and
                  drawing, upper appendage
b: ulna : (lateral view) olecranon process, trochlear notch (semilunar notch), coronoid process, head, styloid process, radial notch
c:radius : head, neck, radial tuberosity, styloid process, ulnar notch

Here is a labled view of the right ulna and radius.
(Here it is in vertical orientation.)
Here is a labeled view of supination and pronation.

5. Articulated bones of the wrist and handlabeled
                    drawing, wrist and handventral view (trace around your hand as a model):
include distal ulna and radius
proximal row of carpals: scaphoid lunate triquetrum pisiform
distal row of carpals: trapezium trapezoid capitate hamate
first through fifth metacarpals, proximal, middle and distal phalanges.

Here is a labeled view of the bones of the hand.

Here is another labeled view of the right forearm before and after pronation.

Chicken Femur
Here is a collage of chicken femur pictures for you to label.

male: male pelvis, anteriormale pelvis, above
female:female pelvis, frontfamale pelvis, above
both, male and female: male and female, side by side

6. Os coxa, lateral view with acetabulum and obturator foramen: labeled drawing, os coxa(Note differences between male and female .)
a: ilium: iliac crest, anterior superior iliac spine, anterior inferior iliac spine, posterior superior iliac spine, posterior inferior iliac spine, greater sciatic notch
b: pubic bone: pubic tubercle, inferior ramus
c: ischium: ischial spine, ischial tuberosity, ischial ramus

Here is alabeled lateral view of the right os coxa.

Here is a labeled view of male versus female pelvices..

Here is a labeled view of the female pelvis.

Here is a labeled view of the male pelvis.

inferior view: superior view:

medial view
                    of bones of the foot

Articulated bones of the ankle to metatarsals , top view:labeled
                  drawing, ankle and foot
talus, calcaneus, navicular, medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, lateral cuneiform, cuboid, first through fifth metatarsals

Here is a labeled view of the bones of the right foot.

detail, superior view tarsals: 

1. VERTEBRA (on facing pages: two pictures on each page, same scale, superior views for all)

Here is the directory list of all pictures of the skeleton, many not included in links above.

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Send Email to: FANKHADB@UC.EDU